26 December 2006
Kwanzaa is an American celebration that is growing in popularity. Celebrated every year from December 26 through New Year's Day, this seven-day festival sets aside time for African-Americans to commemorate African and African-inspired culture and food, while reinforcing values passed along for generations.
II. SELF DETERMINATION
IV. COOPERATIVE ECONOMICS
Kwanzaa means "first fruits of the harvest," and appropriately, this week-long festival culminates in a glorious feast on December 31 that draws on a variety of cuisines. At the center of the celebration is the table, set with a bowl of fruits and vegetables, a straw place mat, a communal cup and a seven-branched candelabra with black, red and green candles. And, while the table includes a wide variety of creatively inspired appetizers, main dishes and desserts, the feast is not complete without recipes made with sweet coconut.
CRISPY COCONUT CHICKEN FINGERS
1 C. sweetened flaked coconut
1/2 C. flour
1/2 t. salt
1/4 t. pepper
1/4 t. garlic powder
1 1/2 pounds boneless skinless chicken breast halves, cut into 1-inch strips
1 egg, lightly beaten
1/3 C. butter or margarine
melted Apricot Dipping Sauce (recipe below)
Heat oven to 400 degrees. Mix coconut, flour, salt, pepper and garlic powder in medium bowl. Dip chicken strips into egg, then coat with coconut mixture. Place in a shallow baking pan. Drizzle with melted butter. Bake 25 minutes or until chicken is browned and cooked through, turning once. Serve with Apricot Dipping Sauce, if desired. Makes about 2 dozen.
Apricot Dipping Sauce:
Mix 1 C. apricot preserves and 2 T. Dijon mustard until well blended.
BAKED CURRY CHICKEN
1/4 C. plus 1 T. flour, divided
1/2 t. salt
1/4 t. pepper
2 1/2 pounds chicken pieces
2 T. butter or margarine, divided
1 C. coarsely chopped apple
1/2 C. chopped onion
1 C. plus 2 T. sweetened flaked coconut, divided
1 garlic clove,
minced 2 t. curry powder
1 1/2 C. chicken broth
Heat oven to 450 degrees. Mix 1/4 cup of the flour, salt and pepper in medium bowl. Coat chicken pieces with flour mixture. Place chicken, skin side up, in single layer in shallow baking pan. Dot with 1 tablespoon butter. Bake 15 to 20 minutes or until chicken begins to brown.
Meanwhile, melt remaining tablespoon butter in medium saucepan on medium-high heat. Add apple, onion, 2 tablespoons of the coconut, garlic and curry powder. Cook and stir until onion is tender but not browned. Stir in remaining tablespoon flour and chicken broth; bring to boil. Remove from heat.
Reduce oven temperature to 350 degrees. Pour sauce over chicken pieces. Sprinkle with remaining 1 cup coconut. Bake 20 to 25 minutes or until chicken is cooked through. Place chicken and sauce on serving platter. Serve over rice, if desired.
COCONUT SWEET POTATO CASSEROLE
2 pounds sweet potatoes, cooked, peeled and cut into 1-inch chunks (about 4 cups)
2 apples, peeled, thinly sliced
2/3 C. maple flavored pancake and waffle syrup
1/4 C. ( 1/2 stick) butter or margarine, melted
1/2 t. salt
2/3 C. sweetened flaked coconut
Heat oven to 350 degrees. Place sweet potatoes in greased 13x9-inch baking dish; top with apples. Mix syrup, butter and salt; pour over apples. Sprinkle with coconut; cover. Bake 30 minutes. Uncover. Bake 20 to 30 minutes or until apples are tender and coconut is lightly browned. Makes 8 servings.
Note: Casserole can be prepared in advance and reheated, adding additional syrup, if necessary.
2 C. flour 2 T. sugar
1 T. baking powder
1 t. salt 1/2 C.
(1 stick) butter or margarine
1 C. milk
1 C. sweetened flaked coconut, toasted
Heat oven to 450 degrees. Mix flour, sugar, baking powder and salt in large bowl. Cut in butter until mixture resembles coarse crumbs. Stir in milk and coconut until soft dough forms. Drop dough by scant 1/4 cupfuls onto ungreased cookie sheet.
Bake 10 to 12 minutes or until golden. Serve warm. Makes 15.
TROPICAL COCONUT CREAM PIE IN COCONUT COOKIE CRUST
1 1/2 C. Shortbread cookie crumbs (about 20 cookies)
1 2/3 C. sweetened flaked coconut, divided
1/3 C. butter or margarine, melted
1 large banana, sliced
1 1/2 C. cold milk
1 package (4-serving size) vanilla flavor instant pudding & pie filling
1 can (8 oz.) crushed pineapple, well drained
2 C. thawed frozen whipped topping
Baker's Angel Flake coconut (optional)
Heat oven to 325 degrees. Mix cookie crumbs, 2/3 cup of the coconut and melted butter in medium bowl until well blended. Press mixture evenly into bottom and up sides of 9-inch pie plate. Bake 10 minutes or until golden. Cool.
Arrange banana slices in crust. Pour cold milk into large bowl. Add pudding mix. Beat with wire whisk 2 minutes. Stir in remaining 1 cup coconut. Spoon over banana slices in crust. Gently stir pineapple into whipped topping. Spread over mixture. Sprinkle with toasted coconut, if desired. Refrigerate 4 hours or until set. Store leftover pie in refrigerator. Makes 8 servings
25 December 2006
Acholi - Mot ki Yomcwing Botwo Me Mwaka Manyen
Adhola - Wafayo Chamo Mbaga & Bothi Oro Manyeni
Aeka- Keremisi jai be
Afrikaans - Geseende Kerfees en 'n gelukkige nuwe jaar
Ahtna - C'ehwggelnen Dzaenh
Aklanon - Malipayon nga Paskwa ag Mahigugmaon nga Bag-ong Dag-on
Albanian - Gëzuar Krishlindjet Vitin e Ri!
Aleut - Kamgan Ukudigaa
Alsatian - E gueti Wïnâchte & E glecklichs Nej Johr!
Alur - Wafoyo Kado Oro & Wafoyo Tundo Oro manyeni
Alutiiq - Spraasnikam & Amlertut Kiaget!
Amharic - Melkam Yelidet Beaal
Amuesha - Yomprocha' ya' nataya
Angami - U kenei Christmas mu teicie kes a-u sie teicie
kesa-u sie niepete keluo shuzaie we
Apache (Western) - Gozhqq Keshmish
Arabic - I'D Miilad Said ous Sana Saida
Aragonese - Nabidà! & Goyosa Añada benién.
Aramaic - Edo bri'cho o rish d'shato brich'to!
Aranés - Bon Nadau!
Arawak - Aba satho niw jari da'wisida bon
Armenian - Shenoraavor Nor Dari yev Soorp Janunt
Aromanian - Crãciunu hãriosu shi unu anu nãu, bunu!
Araucanian - Wi tripantu in che
Asturian - Bones Navidaes & Gayoleru anu nuevu!
Assamese - Rongaali Bihur xubhessaa lobo
Ata - Maroyan na Pasko woy kaopia-an ng Bag-ong
Tuig kaniyo't langon mga sulod
Aukan - Wi e winsi i wan bun nyun yali
Aymara - Sooma Nawira-ra
Azeri - Tezze Iliniz Yahsi Olsun
Bafut - Mboni Chrismen & Mboni Alooyefee
Bahasa/Malaysia - Selamat Hari Natal dan Tahun Baru
Bamoun - Poket Kristmet & Poket lum mfe
Banen - Enganda ye hiono mes & Hion Hios Hes
Bandang - Mbung Mbung Krismie & Mbung Mbung Ngouh Suiie
Basque - Zorionak eta Urte Berri On!
Bassa - Ngand Nwi Lam & Mwi Lam
Batak Karo - Mejuah-juah Ketuahen Natal
Bemba - Kristu abe nenu muli ino nshiku nkulu ya Mwezi
Belorussian - Winshuyu sa Svyatkami i z Novym godam!
Bengali - Shuvo Baro Din - Shuvo Nabo Barsho
Bhojpuri - Naya Sal Mubarak Ho
Bicolano - Maugmang Capascuhan asin Masaganang Ba-gong Taon!
Bislama - Mi wisim yufala eerywan one gutfala Krismas
& mo wan hapi New Year long
Blaan - Pye duh di kaut Kristo klu munt ug Felemi Fali!
Blackfoot - I'Taamomohkatoyiiksistsikomi
Bohemian/Czech - Prejeme Vam Vesele Vanoce a Stastny novy rok
Brahui - Arkas caik xuda are
Breton - Nedeleg laouen na bloav ezh mat
Bulgarian - Chestita Koleda i Shtastliva Nova Godina
Bulu - Duma e bo'o
Bura - e be Zambe e Usa ma ka Kirisimassu
Catalan - Bon Nadal i feliç any nou!
Cantonese - Seng Dan Fai Lok, Sang Nian Fai Lok
Carib - Sirito kypoton ra'a
Carrier - Zoo dungwel & Soocho nohdzi doghel
Carolinian - Ameseighil ubwutiiwel Layi Luugh me raagh fee
Cebuano - Malipayong Pasko ug Bulahang Bag-ong Tuig!
Chamorro - Filis Pasgua & Filis Anu Nuebo
Chaha Bogem h n mh m & Boxem as nana-h m
Chamba - Wi na ge nyare Su dome Kirismass
Cherokee - Danistayohihv & Aliheli'sdi Itse Udetiyvsadisv
Cheyenne - Hoesenestotse & Aa'e Emona'e
Chichewa - Moni Wa Chikondwelero Cha Kristmasi
Chiga - Mwebare khuhika - Ha Noel
Choctaw - Yukpa, Nitak Hollo Chito
Cornish - Nadelik looan na looan blethen noweth
Corsican - Bon Natale e Bon capu d' annu
Cree - Mitho Makosi Kesikansi
Creek - Afvcke Nettvcakorakko
Creole/Seychelles - Bonn e Erez Ane
Croatian - Sretan Bozic
Dagbani - Ni ti Burunya Chou & Mi ti yuun
Damara/Nama - Khiza
Danish - Glædelig Jul og godt nytår
Dibabawon - Marayaw na Pasko aw Bag-ong Tui g kaniyo tibo na mga soon
Dinka - Miet puou yan dhiedh Banyda tene Yin
Dine/Navajo - Ya'at'eeh Keshmish
Divehi - Ufaaveri aa ahareh
Dschang - Chrismi a lekah Nguo Suieh
Duri - Christmas-e- Shoma Mobarak
Dutch - Vrolijk Kerstfeest en een Gelukkig Nieuwjaar!
Egyptian - Colo sana wintom tiebeen
English - Merry Christmas & Happy New Year
Eritrean - Rehus-Beal-Ledeat
Esperanto - Gajan Kristnaskon & Bonan Novjaron
Estonian - Rõõmsaid Jõulupühi ja Head uut aastat
Éwé - Blunya na wo
Ewondo - Mbemde abog abyali nti! Mbembe Mbu!
Faroese - Gledhilig jól og eydnurikt nýggjár!
Fali - Use d'h Krismass
Farsi - Sal-e no mubarak
Fijian - Me Nomuni na marau ni siga ni sucu dei na yabaki vou
Finnish - Hyvää Joulua or Hauskaa Joulua - 0nnellista uutta vuotta
Flemish - Zalig Kerstfeest en Gelukkig nieuw jaar
French - Joyeux Noël et Bonne Année!
Frisian - Noflike Krystdagen en in protte Lok en Seine yn it Nije Jier!
Friulian - Bon Nadâl e Bon An Gnûf
Fulfulde - Jabbama be salla Kirismati
Gaddang - Mangamgam Bawa a dawun sikua diaw amin
Galician - Bon Nadal e Bo Ani Novo
Gari - !Soalokia God i gotu vasau, mi lao ke ba na
rago vanigira ara dou i matana!
Gciriku - Mfiyawidi yaKrisimisa & Marago ghaMwaka waUpe
Georgian - Gilotsavt Krist'es Shobas & Gilosavt akhal ts'els
German - Fröhliche Weihnachten und ein glückliches Neues Jahr!
Gikuyu - Gia na Thigukuu njega Na MwakaM weru wi Gikeno
Gitskan - Hisgusgitxwsim Ha'niisgats Christ gankl Ama Sii K'uuhl!
Golin - Yesu kule nongwa kaun umaribe ongwa ena mone di mile wai wen milo
Greek - Kala Christougenna Ki'eftihismenos O Kenourios Chronos
Greenlandic - Juullimi Ukiortaassamilu Pilluarit
Guahibo - Pexania Navidadmatacabi piginia pexaniapejanawai paxainaename
Guambiano - Navidadwan Tabig tugagunrrigay & Sru pilawan kasrag utunrrigay
Guarani - Avyaitete ahi ko Tupa ray arape qyrai Yy Kapyryin rira
Guarayu - Imboeteipri tasecoi Tupa i vave! & Ivve ava Tupa
rembiaisu toyuvirecoi turpi oyeaisusa pipe!
Gujarati - Natal ni shub kaamnao & Saal Mubarak
Gwere - Osusuku Omusa & Masuke Omwaka
Gwich'in - Drin tsal zhit shoh ohlii & Drin Choo zhit zhoh ohlii
Han - Drin tsul zhit sho ahlay & Drin Cho zhit sho ahlay
Hausa - Barka da Kirsimatikuma Barka da Sabuwar Shekara!
Hawaiian - Mele Kalikimaka & Hauoli Makahiki Hou
Haya - Waihuka na Noeli & Waihhuka n 'Omwaka
Hebrew - Mo'adim Lesimkha. Shanah Tova
Heiban - Ati kalo gathje uwa gigih
Herero- Okresmesa ombwa Ombura ombe ombwa
Hiligaynon - Malipayon nga paskua & Malipayon Nga Bag-ong tuig
Hindi - Shubh Naya Baras
Holo - Seng-tan khoai-lok!
Hmong - Nyob Zoo Xyoo Tahiab
Hungarian - Kellemes karácsonyi ünnepeket és Boldog újévet!
Hungduan - Maphon au nitungawan. Apo Dios Kituwen baron di toon
Iban - Selamat Ari Krismas enggau Taun Baru
Ibanag - nga Pascua
Icelandic - Gleðileg Jól og Farsaelt Komandi ár!
Igbo - Ekelere m gi maka Keresimesi na ubochi izizi afo ozo
Ikiribati - Te Mauri, Te Raoi ao Te Tabomoa nakoimi nte Kirimati ao te Ririki ae Bou
Ilocano - Naimbag a Pascua ken Naragsac nga Baro nga Tawen!
Imbongu - Gotenga malo Jisasi Karaist
Indonesian - Selamat Hari Natal & Selamat Tahun Baru
Inupiaq - Annaurri Aniruq & Paglaun Ukiutchiaq
Inupiatun - Quvianaq Agaayuniqpak
Iraqi - Idah Saidan Wa Sanah Jadidah
Irish - Nollaig Shona Dhuit
Iroquois - Ojenyunyat Sungwiyadeson homungradon nagwutut & Ojenyunyat osrasay
Italian - Buon Natale e Felice Anno Nuovo
Japanese - Shinnen omedeto. Kurisumasu Omedeto
Javanese - Sugeng Natal lan warsa enggal
Jèrriais - Bouan Noué et Bouanne Année
Kabyle - Assegwas ameggaz
Kadazan - Kotobian Tadau Do Krimas om Toun Vagu
Kahua - Na vagevageha surireua na Kirisimasi ma na harisi naoru
Kala Lagaw Ya - Ngi ngayka Koei trimal Kaz
Kambaata - eman haaro wegga illisholce
Kamba - Ithiwa na Kisimsi Kiseo & Na Mwaka Mweu Museo
Kannada - Hosa Varushada Subhasayagalu
Karelian - Rastawanke Sinun, Uvven Vuvenke Sinun
Kaqchiquel - Dios tik'ujie' avik'in
Kashmiri - Christmas Id Mubarak
Kawalib - Amirnar Krismas Gi
Khasi - Krismas basuk & Snem thymmai basuk
Kinyarwanda - Umunsi Mwiza
Kirundi - Noeli Nziza & Umwaka Mwiza
Kom - Isangle Krismen & Isangle beng i fue
Konkoni - Khushal borit Natalam
Korafe - Keremisi ewewa
Korean Sung Tan Chuk Ha
Kosraean - Tok Tapeng & Engan ya sasu
Koyukon - Denaahto' Hoolaank Dedzaanh Sodeelts'eeyh
Krio - Appi Krismes en Appi Niu Yaa
Kuanua - A Bona Lukara na Kinakava
Kurdish - Seva piroz sahibe u sersala te piroz be
Kwangali - Kerekemisa zongwa & Erago moMumvho gomupe
Kyrghyz - JangI jIlIngIz guttuu bolsun!
Ladin - Bon Nadel y Bon Ann Nuef
Lakota - Wanikiya tonpi wowiyuskin & Omaka teca oiyokipi
Lamnsó - Kisheri ke Kisimen & Vijung ve kiya kefiyki
Lango - Afoyo Chamo Mwake & Apoyo Mwaka Manyeni
Latin - Pax hominibus bonae voluntatis
Latvian - Prieci'gus Ziemsve'tkus un Laimi'gu Jauno Gadu!+
Lausitzian - Wjesole hody a strowe nowe leto
Lebanese - Milad Saeed wa Sanaa Mubarakah
Lithuanian - Linksmu Kaledu ir laimingu Nauju metu
Livonian - Jovi talshpivdi un Vondzist uto aigasto
Lower Tanana - Bet'oxdilt'ayi bedena' ch'exulanhde dranh ninoxudedhet
Lozi - Kilisimasi ya nyakalalo & Silimo se sinca sa tabo
Luganda - Amazalibwa Agesanyu & N'Omwaka Omujaa Ogwemirembe
Luhya - Isuguku Indahi & Nu Muhiga Musha
Luo - Sikuku Mar Higa Kod Mor & Mar Kiga Manyien
Luritja - Wai! Nyuntu Larya?
Luxembourgeois - Schéi Krëschtdeeg an e Schéint Néi Joer
Macedonian - Srekan Bozik I Nova Godina
Madura - Pada salamet sabhala bengko areja
Makassar - Salama' Natal & Selamat Tahun baru
Malagasy - Arahaba tratry ny Krismasy
Mambwe - Kristu aye namwe umu nsikunkulu ino iya Mwezi
Malayan - Selamat Hari Natal
Malayalam - Christumas Mangalangalangal & Puthuvalsara Aashamsakal
Maltese - Nixtieqlek Milied Tajjeb u Sena Tajba
Mandarin - Kung His Hsin Nien bing Chu Shen Tan
Mandobo - Mepiya Pagasaulog sa pagka-otawni Jesus aw maontong kaling Omay!
Mangyan - Mayad paq Pasko kag
Mansaka - Madyaw na Pasko aw malipayong Bag-ong Tuig kamayo, mga lumon
Manx - Nollick ghennal as blein vie noa
Maori - Kia orana e kia manuia rava i teia Kiritimeti e te Mataiti Ou
Marathi - Shub Naya Varsh
Margi - Use aga Kirismassi
Marshallese - Monono ilo raaneoan Nejin & Jeramman ilo iio in ekaal
Mataco-Mataguayo - Lesilatyaj ihi Dios ta i ppule ye, Letamsek ihi wichi ta Dios ikojejthi ta i honat e
Maya/Yucateco - Utzul mank'inal
Medlpa - Enim Mutuiyo!
Meithei - Krismas Hlomum & Kumthar Lawmum
Mingrelian - k'irses mugoxuamant & axal ts'anas mugoxuamant
Mongolian - Zul saryn bolon shine ony mend devshuulye
Monégasque - Festusu Natale e Bona ana noeva
Moro - Nidli pred naborete nano
Moru - Medu amiri ovuru Yesu opi amaro
Muyu - Lip Ki amun aa Natal Kowe
Naasioi - Tampara Kirisimaasi
Naskapi - miywaaitaakun mikusaanor & kiyaa maamiyupiyaakw minuwaach pipuun
Ndjem - Mbeya mbeya Ebiel & Mbeya mbeya mbu
Ndogo - Esimano olyaKalunga gwokombandambanda! & Nombili kombanda yevi maantu e ya hokwa!
Ndonga - Okrismesa iwa & Omude Mupe wa Punikwa
Nepali - krist Yesu Ko Shuva Janma Utsav Ko Upalaxhma Hardik Shuva & Naya Barsa Ko harkik Shuvakamana
Newari - Nhu Da Ya Vintuna
Nii - Nim Ono
Niuean - Monuina a Aho Kilisimasi mo e Tau Foou
Norweigan/Nynorsk - Eg ynskjer hermed Dykk alle ein God Jul og Godt Nyttår
Norweigan/Bokmål - God Jul og Godt Nyttår
Notu/Ewage - Keremisi dave be
Nyanja - Kristu akhale ndi inu munyengo ino ya Christmas
Nyankore Mukhulukhe Omwaka
Occitan - Polit nadal e bona annada
Ojibwe (Chippewa) - Niibaa' anami'egiizhigad &amp;amp; Aabita Biboon
Oneida - Wanto'wan amp; Hoyan
Oriya - Sukhamaya christmass ebang khusibhara naba barsa
Orokaiva - Keremisi javotoho
Oromo - baga wagaa hara isinin gaye
Palauan - Ungil Kurismas
Pompangan - Malugud Pascu at saca Masayang Bayung Banua!
Pangasinan - Maabig ya pasko & Maliket ya balon taon
Papiamento - Bon Pasco i Feliz Aña Nobo
Pashto - De Christmas akhtar de bakhtawar au newai kal de mubarak sha.
Pennsylvania German - En frehlicher Grischtdaag unen hallich Nei Yaahr!
Pohnpeian - Peren en Krismas & Peren en Parakapw
Polish - Wesolych Swiat i Szczesliwego Nowego Roku.
Portuguese - Boas Festas e um feliz Ano Novo
Punjabi - Nave sal di mubaraka
Pashto - Christmas Aao Ne-way Kaal Mo Mobarak Sha
Q'anjob'al - chi woche swatx'ilal hak'ul yet yalji Komami'
Quechua - Sumaj kausay kachun Navidad ch'sisipi & Mosoi Watapi sumaj kausay kachun
Quiche' - Dioa kkje' awuk'
Rapa-Nui - Mata-Ki-Te-Rangi & Te-Pito-O-Te-Henua
Rarotongan - Kia akakakaia te Atua i runga i te rangi Teitei,
e ei au to to teianei ao, e kia aroaia mai te tangata nei.
Rengma - Anu keghi Christmas nu amapi kethighi wa salam pi nthu chupenle
Rheto-Romance - Bella Festas daz Nadal ed in Ventiravel Onn Nov
Romani - Bachtalo krecunu Thaj Bachtalo Nevo Bers
Romanian - Craciun fericit si un An Nou fericit!
Rongmei - Mei kathui nata neila mei Khrisrmas akhatni gai mei tingkum kathan tu-na arew we
Roviana - Mami tataru Kirisimasi koa gamu doduru meke qetu qetu vuaheni vaqura ia
Russian - Pozdrevlyayu s prazdnikom Rozhdestva i s Novim Godom
Salar - YangI yilingiz gotlI bulsIn!
Sambal - Maligayang Pasko at Masayang Ba-yon Taon!
Sámi - Buorit Juovllat ja Buorre Oddajahki
Saamia - Muwule Omwaka Enjaya
Samoan - Ia manuia le Kilisimasi ma le tausaga fou
Sango -Gloire na Nzapa na ndouzou aho kouè, Na siriri na ndo sessé na popo ti ajo so amou nguia na Lo.
Santali - Raska nawa Serma
Saramaccan - Nuan wan suti jai o!
Sardinian - Bonu nadale e prosperu annu nou
Scots Gaelic - Nollaig chridheil agus Bliadhna mhath ur!
Secoya -Sihuanu'u Ejaerepa aide'ose'ere & Sihuana'u huaje ametecahue
Semandang - Selemat gawai Natal
Seneca - a:o'-e:sad yos-ha:-se:'
Serbian - Sretan Bozic. Vesela Nova Godine
Sicilian - Bon Natali e Prosperu Annu Novu !
Sinhala - Subha nath thalak Vewa. Subha Aluth Awrudhak Vewa
Slavey - Teyatie Gonezu
Soga - Mwisuka Sekukulu
Songe - Kutandika kua Yesu kuibuwa! & Kipua kipia kibuwa!
Sorani - Newroz le to Piroz be
Sorbian - Wjesole hody a strowe Nowe leto.
Somali - ciid wanaagsan iyo sanad cusub oo fiican.
Sotho/North - Mahlatsi a Matswalo a Morena le Ngwaga o Moswa
Sotho/South - Litakalerso Tse Monate Tsa Kere Semese Le Mahlohonolo a Selemo Se Secha
Slovakian - Vesele Vianoce a stastny novy rok
Slovene - Vesele bozicne praznike in srecno novo leto
Sorbian - Wjesole hody a strowe Nowe leto
Spanish - Feliz Navidad y Próspero Año Nuevo
Sranan - Wan switi kresneti nanga wan bun nyun yari!
Subanen - Piak Pasko Pu Piag Bago Tawn
Sudanese - Wilujeng Natal Sareng Warsa Enggal
Suena - Kerisimasi kokopai
Surigaonon - Malipayon na pasko sanan bag-on tuig!
Swahili - ºKrismas Njema Na Heri Za Mwaka Mpyaº
Swedish - God Jul och Gott Nytt År
Tagalog - Maligayang Pasko at Manigong Bagong Taon
Tahitian - Ia ora i te Noere e ia ora na i te matahiti 'api
Tagakaulu - Madyaw Pagsalog sa Pagka-otaw ni Jesus & Aw mauntong na bago Umay!
Tala Andig - Maayad ha pasko daw bag-ong tuig
Tamazight - Asseggwas Ameggaz
Tarifit - Asuggas Asa'di
Tamil - Nathar Puthu Varuda Valthukkal
Tanaina - Natukda Nuuphaa
Tayal - Pqaquasta ta. Pquasta hentang na Jesu
Telugu - Christmas Shubhakaankshalu & Nootana Samvatchara Subhakanshalu
Thai - Suksan Wan Christmas lae Sawadee Pee Mai
Tlingit - Xristos Khuwdziti kax sh kaxtoolxetl
Tok Pisin - Meri Krismas & Hepi Nu Yia
Tokelau - Ke whakamanuia te Kirihimahi & Tauhaga Fou fiafia
Tonga - Kristo abe anduwe muciindo ca Christmas
Tongan - Kilisimasi Fiefia & Ta'u fo'ou monu ia
Toraja - Salama' Natal & Selama' taun baru
Trukese - Neekirissimas annim oo iyer seefe feyiyeech!
Tshiluba - Diledibua dilenga dia Mfumu - Tshidimu tshipia - tshipia th silenga
Tswana - Keresemose o monate le masego a ngwaga o montsha
Tubetube - Yayaliyaya Yesu sikabi kaiwena
Tumbuka - Kristu wabe namwe munyengo ya Christmas
Turkish - Noeliniz Ve Yeni Yiliniz Kutlu Olsun
Tutchone/Northern - Ut'ohudinch'i Hulin Dzenu & Eyum nan ek'an nenatth'at danji te yesohuthin ch'e hadaatle sh'o
Ukrainian - Veseloho Vam Rizdva i Shchastlyvoho Novoho Roku!
Umbundu - Natale, Natale, Oyo O Natale & Eteke Lio Bowano, Illimo Ciwa
Urdu - Naya Saal Mubarak Ho
Uvean - Italo fa ide tau fou nei eseke
Uyghur - YanghI yiling ahlqIs bolgey!
Valencian - Bon Nadal i millor any nou
Vespi - Rastvoidenke i Udenke Vodenke
Vietnamese - Chuc Mung Giang Sinh - Chuc Mung Tan Nien
Votian - Yvaa rashtagoa! & Yvaa uutta vootta!
Waray-Waray - Maupay nga Pasko ngan Mainuswagon nga Bag-o nga Tuig!
Warlpiri - Miri Kirijimiji & Nyuntunpa Ngurrju nyayirni yapa
Welsh - Nadolig LLawen a Blwyddyn Newydd Dda
Yup'ik/Central - Alussistuaqegcikici
Yupik/Siberian - Quyanalghii Kuusma & Quyangalleq Nutaghamun Aymiqulleq
Xhosa - Siniqwenelela Ikrisimesi EmnandI Nonyaka Omtsha Ozele Iintsikelelo Namathamsanqa
Yiddish - Gute Vaynakhtn un a Gut Nay Yor
Yoruba - E ku odun, e hu iye' dun!
Zarma - Barka da Issa hay-yan hann & Barka da djiri barey-yan
Zaza - Newroz'a tu Piroz be
Zia - Kerisimasi wosewa
Zime - El ma ka bar vra aso vei Lu & El ma ka kim na mireu
Zulu - Sinifesela Ukhisimusi Omuhle Nonyaka Omusha Onempumelelo
I'll be home for Christmas
You can count on me
Please have snow and mistletoe
And presents on the tree
Christmas eve will find me
Where the love light gleams
I'll be home for Christmas
If only in my dreams
Christmas eve will find me
Where the love light gleams
I'll be home for Christmas
If only in my dreams
If only in my dreams...
23 December 2006
On December 23, 1888 Vincent Van Gogh cut off his ear. For years the debate has raged over whether he was insane or suffering from some perceptive disorder. Either way, the works of unbelievable genius that he produced were never sold in his lifetime. That gift to the world, would never have been possible if it weren't for an act of deep brotherly love by Theo Van Gogh. In this season when many concentrate on the star that led the wise men to the Prince of Peace, may we look at other stars and see the pain and need of the world and the changes that can be realized by acts of brotherly love.
Starry, starry night.
Paint your palette blue and grey,
Look out on a summer's day,
With eyes that know the darkness in my soul.
Shadows on the hills,
Sketch the trees and the daffodils,
Catch the breeze and the winter chills,
In colors on the snowy linen land.
Now I understand what you tried to say to me,
How you suffered for your sanity,
How you tried to set them free.
They would not listen, they did not know how.
Perhaps they'll listen now.
Starry, starry night.
Flaming flowers that brightly blaze,
Swirling clouds in violet haze,
Reflect in Vincent's eyes of china blue.
Colors changing hue,
morning field of amber grain,
Weathered faces lined in pain,
Are soothed beneath the artist's loving hand.
Now I understand what you tried to say to me,
How you suffered for your sanity,
How you tried to set them free.
They would not listen, they did not know how.
Perhaps they'll listen now.
19 December 2006
18 December 2006
Christians kept these popular traditions alive, and by the 16th century Catholics and Protestants throughout Germany used these symbols to celebrate their Advent hope in Christ, the everlasting Light. From Germany the use of the Advent wreath spread to other parts of the Christian world.
Traditionally, the wreath is made of four candles in a circle of evergreens. Three candles are violet and the fourth is rose, but four white candles or four violet candles can also be used. Each day at home, the candles are lighted, perhaps before the evening meal-- one candle the first week, and then another each succeeding week until December 25th. A short prayer may accompany the lighting.
Each day at home, the candles are lighted, perhaps before the evening meal -- one candle the first week, and then another each succeeding week until December 25th. The rose candle is usually lighted on the third Sunday of Advent. As the candles are lighted, a prayer may be said.
15 December 2006
The Chanukah menorah is called a HANUKIYAH.
It has nine candle holders. There are eight candles, one for each night of Chanukah. The ninth is called the SHAMASH. The Shamash is used to light the other eight candles. The Shamash is lit first and then is used to light the other candles.
The candles are placed in the HANUKIYAH from right to left. But when the candles are lit, you light from left to right.
The Blessing while lighting the candles
Blessed are you, Lord our G-d, King of the Universe, Who sanctified us by his commandments, and has commanded us to kindle the lights of Hanukah.
Blessed are you, Lord our G-d, King of the Universe, Who wrought miracles for our fathers in days of old, at this season.
Following the blessing this paragraph is said each night, after the first light has been kindled:
We kindle these lights
For the miracles and the wonders
For the redemption and the battles
Which You performed for our forefathers
In those days at this season
Through Your holy priests.
During all eight days of Chanukah
These lights are sacred
And we are not permitted to make ordinary use of them
But only to look at them
In order to express thanks and praise to Your great Name
For Your miracles, Your wonders, and Your salvations.
14 December 2006
Part of the Pagan celebration is the gathering and displaying of evergreen boughs, showing the promise of new life in the coming spring. A Yule tree is erected in many areas to represent the phallus, or spirit of fertility. From this came the Christian Christmas tree.
Yule was established as the birth date of Mithras - with veneration for the sun-and was then adopted by the New Religion (within a few days) to mark the birth of the "Son" Jesus.
13 December 2006
On this day in 1776, American General Charles Lee leaves his army, riding in search of female sociability at Widow White’s Tavern in Basking Ridge, New Jersey. Known to be a welcoming woman, the Widow White entertained the general but the assignation ended when he was captured by British troops.
Lee enjoyed his captivity, even drafting a battle plan for his captors from plush accommodations in which his personal servant maintained his three rooms and no doubt served his food and wine in a most civilized fashion. The British did not act upon his plan, and Lee reported to Valley Forge upon his release in May 1778. After a series of arguments with Washington, Lee was suspended from the army in December 1778 and dismissed in 1780.
12 December 2006
Unemployed Iraqis lured to their deaths by job offer. A suicide bomber targeting laborers killed 60 people today in Baghdad.
Bombs found near Shrine in Samarra
The speaker is Death
There was a merchant in Bagdad who sent his servant to market to buy provisions and in a little while the servant came back, white and trembling, and said, Master, just now when I was in the marketplace I was jostled by a woman in the crowd and when I turned I saw it was Death that jostled me. She looked at me and made a threatening gesture, now, lend me your horse, and I will ride away from this city and avoid my fate. I will go to Samarra and there Death will not find me. The merchant lent him his horse, and the servant mounted it, and he dug his spurs in its flanks and as fast as the horse could gallop he went. Then the merchant went down to the marketplace and he saw me standing in the crowd and he came to me and said, Why did you make a threating getsture to my servant when you saw him this morning? That was not a threatening gesture, I said, it was only a start of surprise. I was astonished to see him in Bagdad, for I had an appointment with him tonight in Samarra.
11 December 2006
There was a short stretch of time between the end of child labor and our age of farming children out to multiple foster homes before dumping them on the street at 18 when an orphanage was a good solution. It may still be the best solution. What it lacks in family feeling, it makes up for in safety and education.
A few places such as that still exist. One of those places has been an inspiration for motion pictures, music and similar institutions in other states.
He Ain't Heavy He's My Brother
The road is long
But I'm strong
So on we go
If I'm laden at all
It's a long, long road
And the load
December 12, 1917 : Father Flanagan establishes Boys Town
In Omaha, Nebraska, Father Edward J. Flanagan, a 31-year-old Irish priest, opens the doors to a home for troubled and neglected children, and six boys enter to seek a better life. Flanagan, who previously ran the Workingmen's Hotel, a haven for down-and-out workers in Omaha, understood that mistreated or orphaned children were at high risk of turning to delinquency and crime in later years.
In the spring of 1918, no space was left in the drafty Victorian mansion at 106 North 25th Street, so Father Flanagan, assisted by sympathetic citizens, moved Boys Town to a building 10 times the size on the other side of town. Within months, enrollment at Boys Town had soared to more than 100 boys, and a school was established that later grew into an institution with a grade school, a high school, and a career vocational center. Before the new building was four years old, more than 1,300 neglected boys from 17 states had passed through Boys Town.
In 1921, Boys Town expanded again with the financial assistance of the people of Omaha, this time to a farm 10 miles west of Omaha. The institution remains at this site today and has changed its name to Girls and Boys Town to reflect its co-ed enrollment.
The 1938 Film "Boys Town" was a sentimental version of the history, but brought Spencer Tracy one of his three Oscars. Boys Town.
09 December 2006
In the meantime, a flashback to the women who made my right to speak out loudly and with force.
Esther Slack Morris
On December 10, 1869, John Campbell, Governor of the Wyoming Territory, approved the first law in U.S. history explicitly granting women the right to vote. Commemorated in later years as Wyoming Day, the event was one of many firsts for women achieved in the Equality State. Wyoming voters again made history in 1924 when they elected Nellie Taylor Ross as the first woman governor in the United States.
The events leading up to the passage of the 1869 suffrage law were put into motion by Esther Slack Morris. When she arrived in South Pass, Wyoming in 1869. Morris embraced the women's rights movement when she was prevented, on account of the discriminatory property laws in the state of Illinois, from claiming title to a tract of land left to her by her deceased husband. By the time she moved west, she was familiar with the ideas of activists Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Lucretia Mott.
Anthony, Stanton, and Mott sculpture in Statuary Hall in Washington D.C. (Often referred to as the three ladies in a tub)
When Morris joined her second husband and family in South Pass, preparations were being made for the first election in the newly-recognized territory. At this point, twenty of the most influential men in the community, including all the candidates of both parties, were invited to dinner to her guests she now presented the woman's case with such clarity and persuasion that each candidate gave her his solemn pledge that if elected he would introduce and support a woman suffrage bill. Democrat William Bright, who had been present at Morris's home, kept his promise and introduced a bill granting women the right to vote.
Although the legislators treated the legislation as a joke, they approved it nonetheless. To their surprise, Governor Campbell signed it into law. The summoning, three months later, of the first women jurors to duty in Laramie, the capital of the territory, attracted international attention.
When Wyoming applied for statehood in 1890, it seemed doubtful the territory would be accepted as long as women had the vote. There are two versions of the message that Wyoming gave Washington: " We may stay out of the Union for 100 years, but we will come in with our women" or "we will remain out of the Union a hundred years rather than come in without the women." Either way, they didn't have to stay out--Wyoming became a state with women's suffrage intact.
08 December 2006
Milton was born in London on December 9, 1609 as the son of a wealthy notary. He was educated at St. Paul's School. Milton received a Masters degree from Cambridge University in 1632.
In 1638, he undertook a European tour where he met many of the major thinkers of the day, especially in Italy. On his return to England, Milton became a Puritan, and an opponent of the Catholics and of the Stuarts. He was also an ardent polemicist, a follower of Cromwell, and the latter's foreign language secretary.
After the restoration of the Stuarts he suffered considerable persecution. He withdrew from active participation in politics and concentrated on his poetry.
Satan Arrousing the Rebellious Angels
Illustration for Paradise Lost
The most unusual aspect of Paradise Lost is the gentle treatment and breadth of understanding given to Satan in his revolt against the tyranny of heaven.
Milton was from an intensely religious age with great splits between Catholic and Protestant thought. People paid for their religious beliefs with their lives. The process of healing these rifts led to the Enlightenment and the idea of the individual being able to worship as they choose and that government would not be involved with religious practice which came to its full flowering in the U.S. Constitution.
Today with the rise of the religious right we are on our way back to that age of religion ruling public policy. The founding fathers would not be pleased, but the devil might.
07 December 2006
Yesterday poor President Bush had a day similar to Judith Viorst's character, Alexander, who was cursed with the Terrible, Horrible, Not Good Very Bad Day.
Both feel as if nobody understands them and that retreating to Australia seems to be a good idea. There is one major difference. Alexander really is understood and has a happy ending. Bush really is understood, but the only way the American public will have an even moderately less dismal result from Iraq will be if he actually does move to Australia.
All the real grown ups told Bush he was a complete and total failure and needed to sit down, shut up and let them run things. The chances that he will do so rank somewhere between slim and none.
Perhaps we could call in Donald Trump in to say sternly: You're Fired! Oops that is the job of the Congress. Maybe they could give us all a wonderful, marvelous, good, very happy day.
06 December 2006
From "In His Own Write"
About the Awful
I was bored on the 9th of Octover 1940 when, I believe, the Nasties were still booming us led by Madalf Heatlump (Who had only one). Anyway, they didn't get me. I attended to varicous schools in Liddypol. And still didn't pass-much to my Aunties supplies. As a memebr of the most publified Beatles me and (P, G, and R's) records might seem funnier to some of you than this book, but as far as I'm conceived this correction of short writty is the most wonderfoul larf I've ever ready.
God help and breed you all.
"It is better to know some of the questions than all of the answers."
"Let us not look back to the past with anger, nor towards the future with fear, but look around with awareness."
"You can fool too many of the people too much of the time."
"The dog has seldom been successful in pulling man up to its level of sagacity, but man has frequently dragged the dog down to his"
05 December 2006
She was born 65 years ago. It won't be the first time she moved, and there were often difficulties when she had to do so. She was a part of some of the major events of the last three generations. She has seen disease, death, heroism, and great events. Unlike most of the men and women she has known, she is still healthy and serving a useful purpose. So for the Thursday anniversary of Pearl Harbor, I give you
- December 1, 1941: Intrepid's keel laid at Newport News, Virginia.
- December 7, 1941: Japanese attack Pearl Harbor.
- April 26, 1943: Launched.
- August 16, 1943: Commissioned CV-11.
- December 3, 1943: Sailed for Pearl Harbor via the Panama Canal and San Francisco.
- January-February, 1944: Participated in the Marshall Islands invasion.
- February 1944: Participated in raid on Truk.
- February 17, 1944: Damaged by Japanese aerial torpedo.
- September-October 1944: Participated in attacks on invasion of the Palaus.
- Strikes against the Philippines, Formosa, and Okinawa.
- Operated out of Utilic fleet anchorage in the Carolinas as unit of Task Force 38.
- October 24, 25, 26, 1944: Participated in Battle of Leyte Gulf. Helped sink the super- battleship Musashi.
- October 30, 1944: Hit by kamikaze--slight damage.
- November 25, 1944: Hit by two kamikazes--heavily damaged.
- March 1945: Strikes against Tokyo and Okinawa. Near miss by a Japanese heavy bomber kamikaze.
- April 6, 1945: Helped sink the Japanese super-battleship Yamato.
- April 16, 1945: Damaged during invasion by kamikaze attack off Okinawa.
- August 1945: Reported back to the Fast Carrier Force. War ended.
- August-December 1945: Policed the coasts of China and Korea, aiding in repatriation of Allied POW.
- December 1945: Arrived back in the United States after Japan occupation duty.
- 1946: Put in reserve at San Francisco.
- October 1954: Completed modernization at the same yard at which she was built.
- 1955-1962: Operated in the Mediterranean with the Sixth Fleet.
- 1956: Refitted at the Brooklyn Navy Yard. Angled deck added.
- May 24, 1962: Served as Recovery Ship for Mercury VII space capsule (astronaut Scott Carpenter) .
- March 23, 1965: Acts as Recovery Ship for Gemini III space capsule (astronauts Gus Grissom and John Young).
- May 1966-1968: Served with the Pacific Fleet off Vietnam in three combat cruises.
- 1974: Decommissioned at Quonset Point R.I. Towed to Philadelphia for bicentennial celebration.
- July 1982: Opens as the Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum in New York City.
- December 5, 2006 The Intrepid moves to the shipyard at Bayonne, NJ for renovations.
04 December 2006
December 5, 1933
Prohibition ended on this date thanks to a state where almost no one but the tourists drink. Be sure to thank Mitt Romney if you bump into him on the campaign trail. He may be running on empty against McCain and Giuliani, but at least the attempt can be toasted with high octane egg nogs for the holidays.
The 21st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified, repealing the 18th Amendment and bringing an end to the era of national prohibition of alcohol in America. At 5:32 p.m. EST, Utah became the 36th state to ratify the amendment, achieving the requisite three-fourths majority of states' approval. Pennsylvania and Ohio had ratified it earlier in the day.
On January 29, 1919, the 18th Amendment achieved the necessary three-fourths majority of state ratification. Prohibition essentially began in June of that year, but the amendment did not officially take effect until January 29, 1920.
In the meantime, Congress passed the Volstead Act on October 28, 1919, over President Woodrow Wilson's veto. The Volstead Act provided for the enforcement of Prohibition, including the creation of a special Prohibition unit of the Treasury Department. Prohibition, failing fully to enforce sobriety and costing billions, rapidly lost popular support in the early 1930s.
In 1933, the 21st Amendment to the Constitution was passed and ratified, ending national Prohibition. After the repeal of the 18th Amendment, some states continued Prohibition by maintaining statewide temperance laws. Mississippi, the last dry state in the Union, ended Prohibition in 1966.
The only way to get away from them is to retreat to the past, so what do you find on this day in history? Another blankety blank crooked politician. Fortunately, when you look a little deeper, you get to ignore them all and start singing.
On December 4, 1875, William Marcy "Boss" Tweed, notorious leader of New York City's Democratic political machine, escaped from prison.
Between 1865 and 1871, Boss Tweed and his cronies stole millions of dollars from the city treasury. Convicted of forgery and larceny in 1873, Tweed was released in 1875.
Immediately rearrested on civil charges, he was allowed daily visits to his family in the company of his jailor. On one of these trips, Tweed made his escape.
Fleeing to Spain, he worked as a common seaman on a Spanish ship until recognized by his likeness to a Nast cartoon and captured. Extradited to New York, William Marcy Tweed died in debtor's prison on April 12, 1878.
The political machine that created Boss Tweed and that Tweed strengthened remained a powerful force in New York City politics. Through a system of patronage and charity, Tammany Hall, the executive committee of the New York City Democratic Party, commanded the allegiance of many voters. Lacking a government safety net, poor citizens relied on the party for access to employment, or for help with funeral expenses.
Public works projects like Central Park provided politicians with patronage opportunities ranging from lucrative contracts to day work digging ditches. A weakened Tammany was finally brought down by the opposition of Franklin Roosevelt and his influence in putting Republican, Fiorello La Guardia, in as mayor of New York.
"The Little Flower" is shown here in 1945 reading to the radio audience during a newspaper strike, because he didn't want the children to miss their daily comics.
His life later became the basis for the Tony Award winning musical Fiorello, proving that the only defense against politics is by decking the halls and singing LA LA LA as loudly as possible.
01 December 2006
Those who watch Keith Olbermann take on President Bush have heard him say, "Have you no decency, sir? Below is the context for that remark and why today following yesterday is a very odd conjunction of historical dates.
Yesterday, December 1, was AIDs Day around the world to encourage support, awareness and understanding for all those with this disease.
If you have not seen it yet, get a copy of Angels in America. One of the major themes is the death of Roy Cohn from AIDs. So what does that have to do with today?
December 2, 1954: McCarthy condemned by Senate
The U.S. Senate votes 65 to 22 to condemn Senator Joseph R. McCarthy for conduct unbecoming of a senator. The condemnation, which was equivalent to a censure, related to McCarthy's controversial investigation of suspected communists in the U.S. government, military, and civilian society.
What is known as "McCarthyism" began on February 9, 1950, when McCarthy, a relatively obscure Republican senator from Wisconsin, announced during a speech in Wheeling, West Virginia, that he had in his possession a list of 205 communists who had infiltrated the U.S. State Department.
Towards the end of the hearings wherein McCarthy was unable to produce names from the lists he so famously waved there was a memorable exchange as follows:
On June 9, 1954, the 30th day of the hearings, McCarthy accused Fred Fisher, one of the junior attorneys at Welch's firm, of association (while in college) with the National Lawyers Guild (NLG), a group which the U.S. Attorney General at the time was seeking to designate as a Communist front organization (see Army-McCarthy hearings). Welch wrote off Fisher's association with the NLG as a youthful indiscretion and famously rebuked: "Have you no sense of decency, sir? At long last, have you left no sense of decency?" When McCarthy tried to continue his attack, Welch cut him off and demanded the chairman "call the next witness." At that point the gallery erupted in applause.
In 1952 Joseph McCarthy appointed Roy Cohn as the chief counsel to the Government Committee on Operations of the Senate. Cohn had been recommended by Edgar Hoover, who had been impressed by his involvement in the prosecution of the Rosenburgs. Soon after Cohn was appointed, he recruited his best friend, David Schine, to become his chief consultant.
For some time opponents of McCarthy had been accumulating evidence concerning his homosexual relationships. Rumours began to circulate that Cohn and David Schine were having a sexual relationship. Although well-known by political journalists, it did not become public until Hank Greenspun published an article in the Las Vagas Sun in 25th October, 1952.
Joseph McCarthy considered a libel suit against Greenspun but decided against it when he was told by his lawyers that if the case went ahead he would have to take the witness stand and answer questions about his sexuality. In an attempt to stop the rumours circulating, McCarthy married his secretary, Jeannie Kerr. Later the couple adopted a five-week old girl from the New York Foundling Home.
In October, 1953, McCarthy began investigating communist infiltration into the military. Attempts were made by McCarthy to discredit Robert Stevens, the Secretary of the Army. The president, Dwight Eisenhower, was furious and now realised that it was time to bring an end to McCarthy's activities.
The United States Army retaliated by passing information about Joseph McCarthy to journalists known to be opposed to him. This included the news that Cohn had abused congressional privilege by trying to prevent David Schine from being drafted. When that failed, it was claimed that Cohn tried to pressure the Army to grant Schine special privileges. The well-known newspaper columnist, Drew Pearson, published the story on 15th December, 1953.
The televised hearings of the Senate hearings exposed the tactics of Cohn and Joseph McCarthy. Leading politicians in both parties, had been embarrassed by McCarthy's performance and on 2nd December, 1954, a censure motion condemned his conduct by 67 votes to 22. Cohn was forced to resign but he managed to join a New York law firm and over the years represented an impressive list of high-profile clients.
In the 1980s Cohn's luck ran out. Disbarred from practicing law in New York State on grounds of unethical and unprofessional conduct, he contracted AIDs. Roy Cohn died on 2nd August, 1986.